Construct and Run Android Automotive OS on Raspberry Pi 4B – Grape Up

Have you ever ever wished to construct your individual Android? It’s straightforward based on the official handbook, however it’s getting more durable on a Home windows (or Mac) machine, or if you happen to’d prefer to run it on bodily {hardware}. Nonetheless too straightforward? Let’s construct Android Automotive OS – the identical supply code, however one other layer of complexity. On this handbook, we’ll cowl all steps wanted to construct and run Android Automotive OS 11 AOSP on Raspberry Pi 4B utilizing Home windows. The answer just isn’t excellent, nonetheless. Essentially the most principal situation is a scarcity of Google Companies as a result of the whole AAOS is on an open-source venture and Google doesn’t present its companies this manner. However, let’s construct the open-source model first, after which we are able to attempt to face incoming points.

Build and Run Android Automotive OS on Raspberry Pi 4B



If you wish to run the system on a bodily machine, you want one. I exploit the Raspberry Pi 4 mannequin B with 8GB of RAM ( By the best way, if you wish to construct and run an emulator from the supply, it’s additionally attainable, however there’s a small limitation – packaging the emulator to a zipper file, shifting it to a different pc, and even operating it beneath Android Studio was launched in Android 12.

To energy your Raspberry, you want an influence adapter (USB C, min. 5V 3A). I exploit the Raspberry-official 5.1V 3A mannequin. You too can energy the Raspberry pc out of your desktop/laptop computer’s USB port, particularly if you happen to’re going to debug it through a serial connection. Test the “If it doesn’t work” part beneath for the required {hardware}.

One other piece of {hardware} wanted is an SD card. In principle, 4GB is all you want, nonetheless, I like to recommend shopping for a bigger card to have some further house in your purposes on Android. I exploit 32GB and 64GB playing cards. You’ll additionally want a built-in or exterior card reader. I exploit the latter. 

The subsequent step is a display. It’s non-compulsory however fancy. You’ll be able to join your mouse and optionally keyboard to your Raspberry Pi through USB and join any show you’ve through micro-HDMI however utilizing a contact display is way more intuitive. I exploit a Waveshare 10-inch display devoted to Raspberry ( The display field has a spot to screw the Raspberry too, so that you don’t want any further case. You too can purchase it with an influence adapter and a show cable.

In case you don’t purchase a bundle, be sure to have all needed equipment: micro-HDMI – HDMI cable to attach a display (Waveshare or some other), USB A – USB mini A cable to attach a contact sensor of the display, USB mini A 5V 3A adapter to energy the display.

Build and Run Android Automotive OS on Raspberry Pi 4B

In fact, you want a pc. On this handbook, we use a Home windows machine with at the least 512GB of storage (the Android supply is large) and 16GB of RAM.

Software program

You’ll be able to most likely construct every thing in pure Home windows, however the beneficial methodology is to make use of WSL. I assume you have already got it put in, so simply be sure to have the most recent WSL2 model. You probably have by no means used WSL earlier than, see the complete handbook right here

WSL changes

The usual WSL set up makes use of a too-small digital drive and restricted RAM, so it is advisable to modify it. 

Let’s begin with the disk. Make certain the WSL is shut down by operating ‘wsl –shutdown’ within the command immediate. Open Home windows Command Immediate with admin privileges and enter ‘diskpart’. Then run ‘choose vdisk file=”<path to WSL drive file>”’. For me, the trail is “C:Customers<person>AppDataLocalPackagesCanonicalGroupLimited.Ubuntu_<WSL_instance_id>LocalStateext4.vhdx”. Now you possibly can develop it with the command ‘develop vdisk most=512000’. Round 300GB is sufficient for Android 11, however if you wish to play with a number of branches of Android on the similar time, you want more room. Now you possibly can shut the diskpart with the ‘exit’ command. Subsequent, open the WSL and run ‘sudo resize2fs /dev/sdb 512000M’. I assume you’ve solely a single drive connected to the WSL and it’s seen within the Linux subsystem as /dev/sdb. You’ll be able to examine it with the instructions ‘sudo mount -t devtmpfs none /dev || mount | grep ext4’. 

Now, let’s modify the reminiscence. Cease the WSL once more. Open your private home listing in Home windows and open .wslconfig file. Create it if this file doesn’t exist but. Within the file, it is advisable to create a [wsl2] part and reminiscence configuration. The whole file ought to appear like this: 

As you possibly can see, I’ve connected 16GB to the digital machine. It’s assigned dynamically, based on wants, however you have to be conscious that the digital machine can take all of it, so if you happen to enable it to eat your whole RAM, it may well pressure your Home windows to make use of a tough disk to outlive (which is able to gradual every thing down considerably).


Constructing Android on 8 cores, 16GB RAM machine takes round 4 hours. If you wish to do it sooner otherwise you don’t have a pc highly effective sufficient at your private home or workplace, you possibly can contemplate constructing within the cloud. Easy AWS EC2 with 32 cores and 64GB of reminiscence does the job in a single hour (to obtain and construct) and prices just some bucks.

Let’s Get Able to Rumble!!!

..or at the least to constructing.

Extra conditions

We’d like some software program however not a lot. Simply set up the next packages. This set of libraries permits you to construct Android Automotive OS variations 11 to 13.

sudo apt replace && sudo apt set up gcc-aarch64-linux-gnu libssl-dev bc python3-setuptools repo python-is-python3 libncurses5 zip unzip make gcc flex bison -y

Supply code downloading

Let’s create a house listing for our android and obtain sources.

mkdir android-11.0.0_r48 && cd android-11.0.0_r48
repo init -u -b android-11.0.0_r48 --partial-clone --clone-filter=blob:restrict=10M
git clone .repo/local_manifests -b arpi-11
repo sync

“repo init” will ask you for some private information. It’s collected by Google. To be taught extra about optimizations right here, examine this handbook: ‘git clone’ provides a customized code from Android RPI venture ( with drivers in your Raspberry Pi. The venture is nice and it’s all you want if you wish to run Android TV. To run Android Automotive OS, we’ll want to regulate it barely (see “Changes” part beneath). ‘repo sync’ will take a while as a result of it is advisable to obtain round 200GB of code. You probably have a strong machine with a fantastic Web connection, you should utilize extra threads with ‘-j X’ parameter added to the command. The default thread rely is 4. You probably have already synchronized your supply code with out android-rpi native manifest, it is advisable to add –force-sync to the ’repo-sync’ command.


All modifications from this part can obtain as a patch file connected to this text. See the “Path file” part beneath.

Android-rpi supplies Android TV for Raspberry Pi. We have to take away the TV-related configuration and add the Automotive OS one.

Let’s begin with eradicating pointless information. You’ll be able to safely take away the next information and directories:

  • machine/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/anim
  • machine/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values-television
  • machine/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/dimens.xml
  • machine/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/kinds.xml
  • machine/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/packages

To take away the person discover display not wanted in Automotive OS, create a brand new file machine/arpi/rpi4/overlay/packages/companies/Automotive/service/res/values/config.xml with the next content material:

<?xml model="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<assets xmlns:xliff="urn:oasis:names:tc:xliff:doc:1.2"> 
  <string identify="config_userNoticeUiService" translatable="false"></string>

To interchange the fundamental TV overlay config with the Automotive overlay config, modify the configuration in machine/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/config.xml.

Take away:

  • <integer identify=”config_defaultUiModeType”>4</integer> <!–disable pressured UI_MODE_TYPE_TELEVISION, as there may be solely MODE_TYPE_CAR out there now–>
  • <integer identify=”config_longPressOnHomeBehavior”>0</integer> <!–disable residence button lengthy press motion–>
  • <bool identify=”config_hasPermanentDpad”>true</bool> <!–disable D-pad–>
  • <string identify=”config_appsAuthorizedForSharedAccounts”>;;</string> <!–take away pointless entry for a shared account as there may be nothing in* now–>

… and add:

  • <bool identify=”config_showNavigationBar”>true</bool> <!–allow software program navigation bar, as there isn’t a hardwave one–>
  • <bool identify=”config_enableMultiUserUI”>true</bool> <!–allow multi-user, as AAOS makes use of background processes referred to as in one other periods –>
  • <integer identify=”config_multiuserMaximumUsers”>8</integer> <!–set most person rely, required by the earlier one–>

Additionally in machine/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/packages/SystemUI/res/values/config.xml, take away <string identify=”config_statusBarComponent” translatable=”false”></string>.

Now let’s rename the android-rpi unique /machine/arpi/rpi4/ to /machine/arpi/rpi4/ We have to modify the file just a little bit.

Take away the next variables definitions. A few of them you’ll re-create in one other file, whereas a few of them are usually not wanted.


Take away the next invocations. We’re going to name needed exterior information in one other mk file.

  • $(name inherit-product, machine/google/atv/merchandise/
  • $(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
  • $(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
  • embrace frameworks/native/construct/

In PRODUCT_PROPERTY_OVERRIDES take away debug.drm.mode.pressure=1280×720 and add the next properties. This fashion you take away the TV launcher configuration and override the default automotive launcher configuration.

  • dalvik.vm.dex2oat64.enabled=true
  • keyguard.no_require_sim=true
  • ro.logd.dimension=1m

Now it is advisable to fully take away the android-rpi TV launcher and add RenderScript help for Automotive OS. In PRODUCT_PACKAGES take away:

… and add:

Create a brand new rpi4.mk4 with the next content material:

PRODUCT_PACKAGE_OVERLAYS += machine/generic/automotive/widespread/overlay
$(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
$(name inherit-product, machine/arpi/rpi4/
$(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
$(name inherit-product, machine/generic/automotive/widespread/
DEVICE_PACKAGE_OVERLAYS += machine/arpi/rpi4/overlay machine/generic/automotive/car_x86_64/overlay

PRODUCT_MODEL := Raspberry Pi 4

Because of the license, keep in mind so as to add your self to the PRODUCT_MANUFACTURER area.

Now you’ve two mk information – is borrowed from android-rpi venture and adjusted, and incorporates all modifications for Automotive OS. You’ll be able to meld these two collectively or break up them into extra information if you happen to’d like, however remember the fact that the order of invocations does matter (not at all times, however nonetheless). 

As Android Automotive OS is greater than Android TV, we have to improve the system partition dimension to suit the brand new picture. In machine/arpi/rpi4/ improve BOARD_SYSTEMIMAGE_PARTITION_SIZE to 2147483648, which suggests 2GB.

You should apply all modifications described in too. These modifications are additionally included within the patch file connected.

In case you use the 8GB model of Raspberry Pi, it is advisable to change machine/arpi/rpi4/boot/fixup4.dat and machine/arpi/rpi4/boot/start4.elf information. You will discover the proper information within the patch file connected or you might use the official supply: It’s most likely not wanted for 4GB model of Raspberry, however I don’t have such a tool for verification. 

Path file 

In case you want to use all modifications described above as a single file, go to your sources listing and run ‘git apply –no-index <path_to_patch_file>’. There’s additionally a boot animation changed within the patch file. If you wish to create certainly one of your individual, comply with the official handbook right here:

Now we are able to construct!

That’s the simple half. Simply run a number of instructions from beneath. Firstly, we have to construct a customized kernel for Android. ‘’ script simply configures all variables required. The primary ‘make’ command builds the true kernel picture (which might take a couple of minutes). Subsequent, construct a tool tree configuration. 

cd kernel/arpi
ARCH=arm64 scripts/kconfig/ arch/arm64/configs/bcm2711_defconfig kernel/configs/android-base.config kernel/configs/android-recommended.config
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- make Picture.gz
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- DTC_FLAGS="-@" make broadcom/bcm2711-rpi-4-b.dtb
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- DTC_FLAGS="-@" make overlays/vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo
cd ../..

The subsequent half is to construct the whole system. “” script units up variables and provides customized instructions to your terminal. Then you possibly can decide the proper pair of Android variations and gadgets with “lunch”. You’ll be able to run it with out parameters to see (nearly) all attainable configurations. On this step, you possibly can resolve to construct a system for devoted {hardware} (eg. Dragonboard) and swap between telephone/pill/TV/wearable/automotive variations of Android. The final line is an actual constructing. We are able to’t run simply “make” or “m”, as documented within the official handbook as a result of we have to create three particular photographs to jot down them on an SD card and run them on Raspberry Pi. Exchange “X” in ‘-j X’ with the variety of threads you wish to use. The default worth is the variety of logical processors in your pc. 

supply construct/
lunch rpi4-eng
make -j X ramdisk systemimage vendorimage

I hope you’ve a pleasant e book subsequent to you as a result of the final constructing takes a number of hours relying in your {hardware}. Excellent news!  If it is advisable to adapt one thing and construct once more, most often you simply want the three final strains (and even simply the final one) – to supply the setting setup, to select the lunch configuration, and to make ramdisk, system, and vendor photographs. And it takes hours for the primary time solely. 

Creating an SD card 

This step appears to be straightforward, however it isn’t. WSL doesn’t comprise drivers for the USB card reader. You should utilize usbip to ahead a tool from Home windows to the subsystem, however it doesn’t work properly with exterior storage with out partitions. The answer is a VirtualBox with Ubuntu put in. Simply create a digital machine, set up Ubuntu, and set up Visitor Additions. Then you possibly can join the cardboard reader and cross it to the digital machine. In case you’re a minimalist, you should utilize Ubuntu Server or some other Linux distribution you want. Bear in mind that utilizing a card reader constructed into your pc could also be difficult relying on drivers and the {hardware} connection sort (USB-like, or PCI-e). 

Now, it is advisable to create a partition schema on the SD card. I assume the cardboard is loaded to the system as /dev/sdb. Test your configuration earlier than persevering with to keep away from formatting your fundamental drive or one other catastrophe. Let’s erase the present partition desk and create a brand new one. 

sudo umount /dev/sdb*
sudo wipefs -a /dev/sdb
sudo fdisk /dev/sdb

Now let’s create partitions. First, you want a 128MB lively partition of the W95 FAT32 (LBA) sort, second a 2GB Linux partition, third a 128MB Linux partition, and the remainder of the cardboard for person information (additionally Linux partition). Right here’s how you can navigate by fdisk menu to configure all partitions.

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.37.2).
Modifications will stay in reminiscence solely, till you resolve to jot down them.
Watch out earlier than utilizing the write command.
Machine doesn't comprise a acknowledged partition desk.
Created a brand new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x179fb9bc.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition sort
   p   main (0 main, 0 prolonged, 4 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (1-4, default 1): 
First sector (2048-61022207, default 2048): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (2048-61022207, default 61022207): +128M
Created a brand new partition 1 of sort 'Linux' and of dimension 128 MiB.
Command (m for assist): a
Chosen partition 1
The bootable flag on partition 1 is enabled now.
Command (m for assist): t
Chosen partition 1
Hex code or alias (sort L to record all): 0c
Modified sort of partition 'Linux' to 'W95 FAT32 (LBA)'.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition sort
   p   main (1 main, 0 prolonged, 3 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (2-4, default 2): 
First sector (264192-61022207, default 264192): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (264192-61022207, default 61022207): +2G
Created a brand new partition 2 of sort 'Linux' and of dimension 2 GiB.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition sort
   p   main (2 main, 0 prolonged, 2 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (3,4, default 3): 
First sector (4458496-61022207, default 4458496): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (4458496-61022207, default 61022207): +128M
Created a brand new partition 3 of sort 'Linux' and of dimension 128 MiB.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition sort
   p   main (3 main, 0 prolonged, 1 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default e): p
Chosen partition 4
First sector (4720640-61022207, default 4720640): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (4720640-61022207, default 61022207):
Created a brand new partition 4 of sort 'Linux' and of dimension 26,8 GiB.
Command (m for assist): w
The partition desk has been altered.
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition desk.
Syncing disks.

Watch out with the final partition – fdisk proposes creating an prolonged one by default, which isn’t wanted in our use case.

In case you don’t do it for the primary time on the identical card, you may even see a warning that some partition already incorporates a file system signature. You’ll be able to safely comply with take away it. 

Partition #4 incorporates a ext4 signature.
Do you wish to take away the signature? [Y]es/[N]o: Y
The signature will probably be eliminated by a write command.

Now, let’s provide file techniques for the primary and the final partitions. 

sudo mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdb1
sudo mkfs.ext4 -L userdata /dev/sdb4

We received’t write something to the final one, because it’s for person information solely and will probably be stuffed by Android in the course of the first boot. However we have to write some information for the primary one. Let’s create a short lived mount listing beneath /mnt/p1 (like “partition 1”), mount it, and replica the required information from the Android constructed within the earlier part. It’s unusual, however we’re going to repeat information from one digital machine (WSL) to a different (VirtualBox). You’ll be able to merely mount a wsl drive as a shared folder in VirtualBox. In case you don’t see a WSL drive in your Home windows Explorer, you possibly can map it as a community drive utilizing “wsl$Ubuntu” path

sudo mkdir /mnt/p1
sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/p1
sudo mkdir /mnt/p1/overlays
sudo cp machine/arpi/rpi4/boot/* /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm64/boot/Picture.gz /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm64/boot/dts/broadcom/bcm2711-rpi-4-b.dtb /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm/boot/dts/overlays/vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo /mnt/p1/overlays/
sudo cp out/goal/product/rpi4/ramdisk.img /mnt/p1
sudo umount /mnt/p1
sudo rm -rf /mnt/p1

In case you’re trying on the official android-rpi venture handbook, there’s a totally different path for vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo file. That’s OK – they use a symbolic hyperlink we’re unable to make use of on this filesystem. 

Typically, you possibly can see an error message when creating an “overlays” listing. It occurs sometimes, as a result of “mount” returns to the console earlier than actually mounting the drive. In such a case, simply name “mkdir” once more. Concentrate on that, particularly if you happen to’re going to copy-paste the whole itemizing from above. 

Now, let’s copy the 2 remaining partitions. In case you’re battling dd command (it could hold), you possibly can attempt to copy huge *.img information from WSL to VirtualBox first.

cd <PATH_TO_YOUR_ANDROID_SOURCES_IN_WSL>/out/goal/product/rpi4/
sudo dd if=system.img of=/dev/sdb2 bs=1M standing=progress
sudo dd if=vendor.img of=/dev/sdb3 bs=1M standing=progress


You’re carried out. You’ve downloaded, ready, constructed, and saved your individual Android Automotive OS. Now you possibly can put the SD card into Raspberry, and join all cables (be sure to join the Raspberry energy cable on the finish). There is no such thing as a “energy” button, and it doesn’t matter which micro-HDMI or USB port of Raspberry you employ. It’s now time to get pleasure from your individual Android Automotive OS! 

If it doesn’t work

The world just isn’t excellent and generally one thing goes terribly unsuitable. In case you see the boot animation for a very long time, or in case your machine crashes in a loop a number of seconds after boot, you possibly can attempt to debug it.

You want a USB-TTL bridge (like this one to attach the proper pins from the Raspberry to the USB. You should join pin 6 (floor) to the GND pin within the bridge, pin 8 (RXD) to the RXD pin of the bridge and pin 10 (TXD) to the TXD pin of the bridge. If you wish to energy the Raspberry through the bridge, it is advisable to additionally join pin 2 to +5V pin of the bridge. It’s not beneficial, due to the decrease voltage, so your system could be unstable. In case you don’t have an influence adapter, you possibly can merely join a USB cable between your pc port and the USB C port of the Raspberry. Warning! You’ll be able to’t join each a +5V connector right here and a USB C energy port of the Raspberry otherwise you’ll burn the Raspberry board. 

See the schema for the connection reference.

The picture relies on 20171226043249PINOUT-USBTTL-CP2102.pdf ( and File:RaspberryPi 4 Model B.svg – Wikimedia Commons

Relying in your bridge mannequin, you might want a further driver. I exploit this one:

While you join the +5V pin or USB-C energy adapter (once more, by no means each on the similar time!), the Raspberry begins. Now you possibly can open Putty and connect with your Android. Decide Serial and sort COMX within the serial line definition. X is the variety of your COM port. You’ll be able to examine it in your machine supervisor – search for “USB to UART bridge (COM4)” or the like. The proper connection pace is 115200.

Open the connection to entry the Android shell. By default, Android spawns all logs to the usual output, so you need to see loads of them immediately. Anyway, it’s dual-side communication and you’ve got full terminal entry to your Android if it is advisable to examine/modify any file or name any command. Simply strike enter to see the command immediate. You’ll be able to even name ‘su’ to achieve superuser entry in your Android operating on Raspberry. 

Connecting through adb 

If you wish to use Android Debug Bridge to connect with your machine, utilizing a USB bridge just isn’t sufficient. When operating ‘adb gadgets’ in your pc, the Android Automotive OS operating on Raspberry just isn’t acknowledged. You should utilize a putty connection to activate a TCP debug bridge as a substitute. 

Be sure you’ve linked Android and your pc to the identical community. Open putty and connect with the operating Android console. Log as root and allow ADB through TCP. Then examine your IP tackle. 

setprop service.adb.tcp.port 5555
cease adbd
begin adbd
ifconfig wlan0

Now, utilizing your Home windows command line, go to the Android SDK platform-tools listing and connect with your machine. As you possibly can see, the IP tackle of mine Raspnberry is

cd %userprofilepercentAppDataLocalAndroidSdkplatform-tools
adb join

If you wish to use ADB in WSL, you possibly can hyperlink the Home windows program in WSL utilizing the next command.

sudo ln -s /mnt/c/Customers/<your_username>/AppData/Native/Android/Sdk/platform-tools/adb.exe /usr/bin/adb

Now you can use ADB to make use of logcat with out putty or to put in purposes with out manually transferring APK information to the SD card. Enjoyable reality – if you happen to use a USB bridge and USB energy provide, you’ve two bodily connections between your pc and the Android-running one, nonetheless, you continue to want to make use of ADB over WiFi to make use of the debug bridge.

Abstract: Android Automotive OS on Raspberry Pi 4B

That’s all. Android Automotive OS 11 is operating. You’ll be able to set up the apps you want, take them to your automotive, or do no matter you’d like with them.  Utilizing {hardware} as a substitute of an emulator permits you to manually handle partitions (e.g. for the OTA replace) and join exterior gadgets like an actual GPS receiver or accelerometer. The naked steel {hardware} overperforms the emulator too. And most significantly – you possibly can simply take it to your automotive, obtain energy from an in-car USB port, join it to an ODB-II port and run real-life exams with out a laptop computer.